EFFECTS OF REPLACEMENT OF SOYBEAN MEAL WITH PALM KERNEL CAKE IN DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH MULTI-ENZYME FOR BROILER CHICKENS.
Name: Dada Ifeoluwa DAMI [View Profile]
Matric. No.: PG/2011/0146
Programme: Livestock Science and Sustainable Environment
Session of Entry : 2014/2015
Degree : PhD AgSE.
Defense Date: 17/09/2018
Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) is used for livestock production. However, its high fibre content limits its use in poultry feed. Two trials of 42 days each were conducted to investigate the effects of adding a multi-carbohydrase to PKC. A total of seven hundred and twenty (720) one-day old Marshall broiler chicks were used for experiment one (E1) in a 2×3 factorial arrangement with PKC replacing Soybean meal (SBM) in the diet at 0, 7.5 and 15% levels (weight for weight). The birds were alloted into six (6) dietary treatments having six (6) replicates of twenty (20) birds each. The diets were labeled D1-D6 (D1-D3 without enzyme and D4-D6 with enzyme). In experiment two (E2), four hundred (400) one-day old Marshall broiler chicks were allotted to ten (10) diets in a 2×5 factorial arrangement with PKC replacing SBM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels (protein for protein). There were ten (10) dietary treatments of four (4) replicates containing ten (10) birds each. The diets were labeled D1-D10 (D1-D5 without enzyme and D6-D10 with enzyme) for experiment two (E2). Data on performance, carcass, digestibility, gut morphology, ileal digesta viscosity, serum and haematological indices and feed cost analysis were collected. Data were subjected to Analysis of Variance in a Completely Randomized Design. For E1, the birds on D6 had significant (p<0.05) final weight (FW) of 433.14 g at day 21 while D4 had FW of 1502.47 g and lowest cost per weight gain (CPWG) of N267.31/Kg at day 42. Gut morphology parameters were found to increase (p<0.05) when D5 was fed for ileum and duodenum and at D6 for jejunum. Birds fed D6 had the highest (p<0.05) total proteins (54.63 mg/dl), albumin (33.50 mg/dl), Uric acid (50.00 mg/dl) and alkaline phosphatase (166.67 µ/L). In E2, birds had (p<0.05) final weight (513.33 g) and weight gain (476.27 g) at D6, and D3 had (p>0.05) CPWG (N261.34) for 0-21 days and birds on D1 had (p<0.05) values for performance parameters but the lowest CPWG (N319.35/Kg) was found with birds on D8. Birds on D8 and D9 had (p<0.05) villus height for ileum and jejunum. Birds consuming D10 had significantly (p<0.05) higher gizzard weight (3.59%). Enzyme addition caused a reduction in the viscosity of ileal digesta with (p<0.05) lowest values at D6 for 50, 60 and 100 rpm (revolution per minutes). Packed cell volume, haemoglobin and red blood cells were improved (p<0.05) for birds on D6 and the white blood cells differentials were not influenced (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. Birds on D6 had best values for crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF) and ether extract (EE) digestibility for 0-21 days, but at 22-42 days, CP was highest at D8, CF at D5 and EE at D6. The nutrient in PKC can be adequately utilized by broiler chickens if supplemented with an exogenous enzyme to make the nutrient more available therefore, PKC can effectively replace 50% SBM (protein for protein) in diets supplemented with multi-carbohydrase.