In vitro and in vivo evaluation of siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) leaf meal as additive in the diet of West African dwarf bucks


Name: Ogadu Chukwuemeka Bobby-Joe
Matric No: PG 15/0347
Year of admission: 2015/2016
Programme: Livestock science and sustainable environment
Degree-in-view: M.AgSE (Livestock science and sustainable environment)
Date of defense: 25th October, 2018



Improved rumen and feed efficiency with reduced methane gas emission plays a key role in the sustainability and productivity of ruminants. The study which composed of two experiments evaluated the potential of Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) as a modifier of rumen fermentation in West African Dwarf Bucks. Experiment 1 evaluated the chemical properties of C. odorata and the effect of dietary inclusion at varying levels on in vitro gas production, methane gas production, in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibilities and post incubation parameters. Rumen fluids was collected from 25  West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks randomly allocated to 4 treatments diets with 0, 2, 4 and 6% C. odorata inclusion in a Completely Randomized Design. In Experiment 2, performance characteristics, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen utilization, rumen microbial count and blood chemistry of (WAD) bucks fed diets containing varying levels of C. odorata were investigated. Twenty five (25) WAD bucks with an average weight of 10±2kg were randomly allocated by weight to four treatment diets with 0, 2, 4 and 6% C. odorata inclusion for a period of 3 months. Five replicates per treatment were used for the study. Data obtained was analysed using a One-way Analysis of Variance and means compared using Duncan Multiple Range Test. Results showed that the addition of C. odorata to the diets significantly (p<0.05) increased invitro gas production while methane gas estimate was unaffected. Diets containing 4% C. odorata addition had the highest total gas output (30.67ml/200mg) and net gas output (30.37ml/200mg). In vitro organic and dry matter digestibilities, total digestible substrates and short chain fatty acids increased (p<0.05) with C. odorata addition to the diets and diet with 4% inclusion had highest values (31.99%, 77.08%, 154.17g and 0.15lµmol/g DM respectively). Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, and nitrogen utilization by WAD goats fed experimental diets were not (p>0.05) affected by dietary inclusion of C. odorata. However, weight gain of experimental goats increased (p<0.05) with the inclusion of C. odorata to the diets with goats on diets with 4% inclusion having the highest value (6.20kg). Haematological parameters were not affected(p>0.05) by the dietary inclusion of C. odorata. However, serum glucose and aspartate aminotransferase increased (p<0.05) with the inclusion of C. odorata. Total anaerobic bacteria count (TABC) increased (p<0.05) with the inclusion of C. odorata. However, total protozoa and fungi counts were unaffected (p>0.05) by the experimental diets. This study concluded that the use of C. odorata as an additive at 4% inclusion can efficiently increase total gas output whilst not affecting methane emission, increased post-incubation parameters and weight gain of goats.

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