This programme provides opportunities for graduates with backgrounds in water related scientific, engineering and environmental disciplines to enhance their knowledge of the water environment as it affects agricultural development and management. The programme is aimed to train a new breed of scientists capable of new thinking to proffer demand-driven solutions to hydrological and environmental problems. This training is designed to involve theoretical, practical, computational and internships that will be very relevant to address emerging environmental challenges. The proposed option has a total of 44 unit courses including 10 units of Centre courses, 26 units of compulsory/elective courses. Seminars and internship report carry 2 units each while dissertation carry 4 units.
The philosophy of this programme is to improve and sustain livestock farming within the hydrological zones in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Deriving from the foregoing philosophy the major objectives of this programme are:
1.To train graduates who are sufficiently knowledgeable in hydrological systems and environment.
2.To produce graduates who are practically and theoretically adept in environmental aspects that meets the needs of agro-industries.
3.To produce skilled and competent graduates who will effectively manage, critically assess information and issues relating to environmental pollution.
4.To produce skilled professionals capable of hydrological forecasting and prediction for sustainable agriculture and national development.
Degrees to be awarded
M.AgSE and Phd.AgSE Environmental Systems and Agriculture (Option?????)
3.5.3 LIST OF PROGRAMME-SPECIFIC COURSES AND UNITS FOR M.AgSE
Course CodeCourse TitleUnitsStatus
FIRST SEMESTER COURSES
ESA 801Mathematical methods and numerical applications3OSC
ESA 803Fluid Mechanics2OSC
ESA 805Hydrological Measurements and Analysis3OSC
ESA 807Environmental Simulation Modelling3OSC
ESA 809Climate Change Processes, history and Contemporary issues2OSC
ESA 811Remote Sensing, GIS and Land Management3OSC
ESA 813Waste Water Management and Pollution Control3OSC
TOTAL UNITS FOR FIRST SEMESTER19
SECOND SEMESTER COURSES
ESA 802Environmental Economics1OSC
ESA 804Environmental Safety and Protection2OSC
ESA 806Soil Processes Assessment and Management2OSC
ESA 808Climate Change Impacts, Ecosystem Management and Sustainability2Elective
ESA 810Internships Reports and Seminars4OSC
ESA 899Research Project4OSC
TOTAL UNITS FOR SECOND SEMESTER15
3.5.4 SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENT FOR M.AgSE
CENTRE CORE COURSES (CCC)12 UNITS
OPTION SPECIFIC OPTION (OSC)24 UNITS
INTERNSHIP REPORTS AND SEMINARS4 UNITS
For Phd.AgSE, how many Units??????? For Non FUNAAB Graduates, what happens? Any courses to audit??? Please specify.
3.5.5 SYNOPSIS OF COURSES
ESA 801: Mathematical methods and numerical application (3 Units)
Mathematical methods, Numerical methods, Statistics and probability and Computer application. Matrix algebra, Laplace transforms and Fourier series, Z-transforms, differential and partial equations Classification of differential equations (elliptic, parabolic, hyperbolic), Differential equations, Solution methods (finite difference and introduction to finite elements), Initial and boundary conditions. Probability problems in hydrology, Statistical parameters, Distributions, Extreme values, Regression and correlation, Likelihood and hypothesis testing. Applications to surface water and groundwater problems.
ESA 803: Fluid mechanics (2 Units)
Types of fluids, Physical properties of fluid. Flow mechanism in hydrological studies. Fluid mechanics: Mechanics of ideal fluid, Potential flow, flow nets, Laplace equation, Flow in porous media, Mechanics of viscous flow, Navier-Stokes equation, Reynold stresses, Reynold’s equation, Boundary layer theory, velocity distribution. Physical properties of water, Uniform flow in open channels, Equation of continuity and motion, Gradually varied uniform flow, back water curves), Hydraulics, Flow in hydraulic structures, hydraulic jump and head losses, Hydraulic models, Theory of groundwater flow and mathematical treatment of a number of important flow problems.
ESA 805: Hydrological Measurements and Analysis (3 Units)
Hydrometric Networks: Gauging networks; design considerations; precipitation networks; evaporation networks; surface water networks and groundwater networks. Precipitation: Storage gauges; rainfall recorders; siting the rain gauge; international practice and recent developments. Evaporation: Factors affecting evaporation, measurement of evaporation from an open water surface and measurement of evaporation loss from transpiration from vegetation (evapotranspiration) and measurement of potential evaporation. Soil moisture: Soil structure and composition; soil properties; water in soil; soil water retention and methods of measurement. River flow: River gauging; stage-discharge relationship; flumes and weirs; dilution gauging and modern gauging techniques. Groundwater: Infiltration; groundwater flow equations; flow nets; groundwater measurement and groundwater exploration. Precipitation Analysis: Determination of areal rainfall; depth-area analysis; depth-area-duration; rainfall frequency; intensity-duration-frequency analysis and extreme values of precipitation. Evaporation Calculations: Calculation of Eo; Calculation of Et; Calculation of PE and Soil moisture deficit. River Flow Analysis: River regimes; peak discharges; flow frequency; flood frequency; flood probabilities; analysis of an annual maximum series; flood prediction; droughts and frequency of low flows. Rainfall-Runoff Relationships: Rational Method; Time-area method; hydrograph analysis. Catchment modelling and Stochastic hydrology
ESA 807: Environmental Simulation modelling (3 Units)
Criteria for the use of data for modelling: Accuracy, Time intervals, Error detection and correction. Classification of models: Terminology, model technique (physical models, analog and mathematical models),model-prototype relationship, limitations, Deterministic and stochastic principles, Lumped and distributed models, Linear and non-linear models. Stochastic models: Introduction to stochastic processes, Random events, stationarity, Time series analysis, Markovian processes, Filtering. Deterministic models: Deterministic methods in system hydrology, Analytical and numerical solution of equation of motion and continuity, Black box analysis, Conceptual models Mathematical physical models, Flood routing models, Optimization of model parameters, criteria, techniques. Environmental forecasting:, Hydrological forecasting, Forecast methods: short-term forecast, on-line systems, updating of parameters; long-term forecast for seasonal runoff, off-line systems. Application to floods, draught, low flow, water temperature.
ESA 809: Climate Change Processes, history and Contemporary issues ( 2 units)
An overview of Paleo-climatology; Atmospheric components , structure and the general circulation of the atmosphere; History of climate, natural and anthropogenic greenhouse gases, global warming, climate variability and change; Formation of ozone and interaction with UV radiation; Tropospheric photo-chemistry (NOx, VOCs, formation of tropospheric ozone and impacts on radiation balance/ budget quantities on the earth and atmosphere systems); Causes of climate change (Natural and anthropogenic/human activities); Factors influencing climate change including interactions within the atmosphere, ocean, solid earth and biosphere; Stability and sensitivity of climate system, global warming, ozone depletion, and other human influences; Green house effects, remediation techniques, air pollution consequences of global warming, acid rain and acidification; Evidences of climate change.
ESA 811: Remote Sensing, GIS and Land Management (3 units)
Mapping, photo interpretation: Cartography, projections, Hydrological legends, Presentation on maps of variables in space and time, computer maps; presentation of three-dimensional problems, Surface water maps, water quality maps, groundwater maps, continental, hydrogeological maps, Remote sensing, aerial surveying; interpretation of aerial photographs and space imagery, Global Positioning Systems (GPS),Geographical Information Systems (GIS), yield monitor, variable rate technology, and remote sensing. Applications, Adaptation and implementation of GPS and GIS for precision livestock farming.
ESA 813: Waste water management and Pollution Control (3 units)
Water chemistry and water biology: Composition and characteristics of surface and groundwater, Biochemical cycles, C , N, P and S, Main chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters, Introduction to instruments, Genetics, breeding of plants and animals, Ecosystems (principal system, baseline surveys), Aquatic ecology, Population dynamics, carrying capacity; Surface water quality: Factors affecting water quality and pollution by human, industrial and Agricultural wastes, Water quality criteria, Stratification and eutrophication in lakes and reservoirs, Thermal pollution, Self-purification, Water-related diseases, Water quality monitoring; water quality classification, accumulation of heavy metals and toxic organic metals in sediments; Groundwater quality: Processes determining groundwater quality, Sources of groundwater pollution and effects on groundwater quality (N-,P-organic micro-pollutants, heavy metals, nuclear wastes), Artificial groundwater recharge, Flow lines and residence time of polluted groundwater, Leaching from waste disposals, Protection of groundwater, sanitation and prevention, Groundwater quality monitoring, sampling techniques. Soil conservation and erosion control: Continental erosion and sediment transport to the ocean, Factors affecting surface erosion, Soil loss tolerance, Surface and linear erosion control, Wind erosion, erosion modelling. Environmental impact assessment: Environmental conservation and public health objective for water resources and civil engineering projects, Environmental planning and conservation strategies, Land use and soil conservation; groundwater protection Case studies (implementation of irrigation schemes; dam construction; land reclamation), Identification, prediction and assessment of environmental impacts.
ESA 802: Environmental Economics (1 Unit)
Economics of water resources planning: Engineering economy; financial and economic analysis, Cost-benefit analysis and rate of turnover criteria, Cost models for water resources schemes, Tarification policy, Analysis of project returns. Systems analysis: Analysis of linear input-output systems, Identification of objectives, economic benefits, cost and decision variables, Application of systems analysis to problems of water resources engineering, and environmental management Optimization methods (linear programming, dynamic programming, simulation, Sensitivity analysis etc.)
ESA 804: Environmental Safety and Protection (2 Units)
Major issues and public policy in environmental protection. Managerial problems associated with the prevention, mitigation and cleanup of environmental problems. Governmental involvement and regulation and emerging trends as they influence decision-making in the public and private sector. Physical, political, legal, economic and technological factors that help shape and constrain environmental protection policy. Rules that govern the management of hazardous and other solid wastes, including industrial, household and livestock wastes. Requirements governing solid waste generation, storage transportation, processing, treatment and disposal as well as the closure and remediation requirements for livestock waste sites. The course will also examine the relationship between federal and state rules as they apply to the management of waste and enforcement issues to waste management.
ESA 806: Soil Processes Assessment and management (2 Units)
Soils in the ecosystem, soil genesis and factors of soil formation. Soil Resources Inventories: soil morphology and characterization. Physical and morphological properties of soils. Main soil processes. Physical and Chemical properties of soils: colour, texture, structure, consistency, porosity, permeability, drainage. Soil reaction, soil clays, Cation Exchange Capacity, Anion absorption and exchange, soil buffering, organic colloids. Soil classification and mapping. Soil data interpretations and multi-criteria evaluations: Soil Fertility Assessment and Management, Soil Organic Matter (SOM) Management (continuation) and Soil Carbon and Carbon Sequestration, Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation Measures. Soil Toxicity and Soil Contamination: Land Degradation Assessment
ESA 808: Climate Change Impacts, Ecosystem Management and Sustainability (2 units)
Climate change and disasters/hazards consequences ( erosion, floods, storms, axis rain, heat waves, resource depletion, etc); Challenges on agricultural production and food security – soils, cropping/farming systems, food and animal production, distribution and accessibility; Impacts on livestock, fisheries, forestry, post harvest and farm produce storage, water resources; Land use, savanna and forest fires and implications for ecosystem structure, food chain and biodiversity loss; Climate change , ecosystem degradation and food security situation in sub- Saharan Africa; Vulnerability assessment and strategies for ecosystem management in a changing climate ( adaptation, mitigation, resilience, etc); adaptive management of ecosystems for sustainable development; Principles and concept of sustainability and carrying capacity; Climate change and sustainability of environmental resources (soil, vegetation and forest resources, water resources and aquatic organisms, agriculture and crop biodiversity); Climate change- human activities nexus and concept of ecological rehabilitation.
(i)pH, acidity, alkalinity
(ii)total and calcium hardness
(iii)Chemical Oxygen Demand
(iv)Biochemical Oxygen Demand
(v)Jar tests (coagulation and flocculation)
(vii)Phosphorous Coliform count