Livestock Science and Sustainable Environment
The West African region is attributable to adverse climate conditions like low rainfall, frequent droughts, deforestation and environmental degradation due to population growth and civil strife. Livestock sector is one of the potential areas to accelerate agricultural growth. A systematic approach and methodology to climate change effects in the region is to promote training in sustainable livestock production through demand driven and globally competitive research and development. The curricula are designed for teaching and to promote collaborative and sustainable research with relevance to the region, livestock industry, relevant organizations and agencies. The proposed option has a total of 44 unit courses including 10 units of Centre courses, 16 units of compulsory option courses and 4 units of elective option courses. Research projects, Seminars, Dissertation and internship reports carry 4, 2 and 2 units respectively.
3.1.2 PHILOSOPHY OF LIVESTOCK SCIENCE AND SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME
The primary philosophy of this programme is to pursue the training of skilled manpower for sustainable animal production, focusing on the appropriate research technology, resource, climate and environmentally friendly production of foods of animal origin. The Livestock Science options will provide knowledge and skills necessary to alleviate identified challenges to livestock productivity, research and development under sustainable environments.
3.1.3 OBJECTIVES (this section needs serious revision). It does not flow well in content and grammar.
The options have the following training objectives:
I.To enhance the production and processing of animal products with emphasis on relevant, appropriate and manageable technology to modernize animal production, processing, storage, preservation and distribution.
II.Introducing a new postgraduate programme leading to gaining knowledge about the interrelated processes in the production of animal originating food and its impact on the environment and society,
III.Acquiring production methods and gains of the skills which enable our students to work for research and consulting companies and to apply for leading positions in industries dealing with animal agriculture and environment,
Acquiring knowledge about problems resulting from the production of food of animal origin, treatment and recycling of waste materials and harmful gas as well as bio-energy production.Acquiring ability to check and balance the interests of all parties involved in the food production, regarding also agrarian and environmental standards
Degrees to be awarded
M.AgSE or Phd.AgSE Livestock and Sustainable Environment (Option???????)
3.1.4 LIST OF PROGRAMME-SPECIFIC COURSES AND UNITS FOR M.AgSE
APL 801Biostatistics (3 Units, 1st Semester)
APL 802Tropical Livestock Feed Resource and Commercial Feed Milling (3 Units, 2nd Semester)
APL 803Poultry Farming Systems and Sustainable Environment (2 units 1st Semester)
APL 804Ruminant Livestock Production Systems and Environmental Sustainability (2 Units, 2nd Semester)
APL 805Environmental Physiology of Farm Animals (2 Units, 1st Semester)
APL 806Animal Biotechnology (2 Units, 2nd Semester)
APL 898Internship Reports (2 Units)
APL 899Research Projects and Dissertations (4 Units)
APL 897Seminar I(1 Unit)
APL 898Seminar II(1 Unit)
Electives (minimum of 2 courses of 2 units each to be selected)
APL 807Quantitative Genetics (2 Units, 1st Semester)
APL 808 Poultry Nutrition and Organic Animal Agriculture (2 Units, 2ndSemester)
APL 809 Sheep and Goat Production Enterprises (2 units, 1st Semester)
APL 810 Sustainable Integrated Livestock Farming Systems (2 units 2ndSemester)
APL 811 Animal Behaviour and Welfare dynamics in a changing climate. (2 Units, 1stSemester)
Students can take more electives to gain knowledge and experience in their areas of interest
Total Option Units = 24 Units
For Phd.AgSE, how many Units??????? For Non FUNAAB Graduates, what happens? Any courses to audit??? Please specify.
Please insert Tables with courses for First and Second semesters and the units/course and total units per semester.
3.1.5 SYNOPSIS OF COURSES
APL 801 Biostatistics (3 Units)
Planning of experiments. Ways of increasing accuracy of experiments. Regression and correlation. Mixed models, completely randomized designs, randomized complete block, Latin squares, factorial experiments, confounding variables, split plots designs. Lattice designs, lattice squares, missing data, and analysis of results of a series of experiments. Analysis of data arising from animal production/breeding. Use of package programmes for analysis of data arising from animal experimentation.
APL 802 Tropical Livestock Feed Resource and Commercial Feed Milling (3 Units)
Conventional, alternative and new feed resources. Tropical feedstuffs type, availability and extent of utilization, feed microscopy, and feedstuff standardisation and quality assessment. Feedmill operation and design. General aspects of livestock feed formulation for various classes of livestock. Computer in feed formulation and least cost diets. Recycling of waste and their nutritional potentials.
Seminars:Two topics per student
•Common types of potentially problematic ingredients
•Livestock Feed Formulation
•Poultry Feed Compounding
•Identification and use of agro-industrial by-products
APL 803Poultry Farming Systems and Sustainable Environment (2 Units)
This course aimed at different poultry production systems and the attendant effects of climate change on the efficiency of production. Students are expected to understand the problems of and opportunities available in systems of poultry production as well coordinate livestock issues with other agricultural disciplines. Students will therefore have a practical knowledge and appreciation of the contribution of poultry production systems to the agricultural industry worldwide.
Past and present scenario of poultry industry
1.Domestication of poultry
Genetic classification of chickens and other species of poultry- layers, broilers,[day old chicks, breeder egg, broilers] and other class of poultry- Hybrids available[turkey]
2.Terms used in poultry farming
3.Growth of poultry industry in Nigeria
Poultry population and other poultry related statistics, per capita meat and egg availability
4.Poultry systems: small and large scale
5.Systems of rearing: free-range, free-to-range, semi-intensive,
intensive rearing (deep litter, cage and slate floors), etc.
6.Nutrition and management of poultry species in the
different rearing systems
7.Introduction to rearing of Turkeys, Ducks, Japanese Quails,
Guinea fowls and Geese for meat production
8.Poultry integration, Contract farming and linkages
9.Scavenge-able Feed Resource Base
4.Different house designs
5.Roof and roof material
Selection of poultry farm site and ideal location
6.Future expansion facility- electricity – farm equipment –
7.Housing and different growing programs; All in and all out
systems, batch system etc.
1.Poultry house temperature
2.Humidity, cross ventilation, radiation, ammonia
concentration, air flow, environmentally controlled house
1.Heat and moisture production from poultry house, cooling/
heating of poultry houses- movement of air, system of ventilation, lighting management, critical temperature
1.Observed climate change
2.Complex interactions of temperature and precipitation
3.Impact of climate change on poultry production and food
4.Adaptation and best management practices
Basic training and experience in hatching operation: setters, hatchers, egg grading, branding, processing of egg to egg powder
APL 804 Ruminant Livestock Production Systems and
Environmental Sustainability (2 Units)
1.Land and livestock resources
2.Characteristics of ruminant production systems
3.Classification of ruminant production systems
a.Traditional ruminant production systems
i.Pastoral and agro-pastoral systems
ii.Mixed system in the semi-arid, sub-humid and humid zones
b.Non-traditional production systems
ii.Smallholder beef and dairy systems
iii.Production parameters of ruminant in non-traditional
systems- Beef and Dairy systems
iv.Feed resources in ruminant production systems
4.Ruminant production and climate change
Future impacts of climate change on the ruminant livestock industry
5.Greenhouse gas emissions and their role in ruminant production systems
Key features of livestock farming that relate to greenhouse gas emissions
Dairy, Beef, Goats and Sheep sectors
6.Research measures to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions and the potential for further adoption by the industry
Measures for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, removals and measures that avoid or displace greenhouse gas emissions
Carbon sensitive farming
7.Organic ruminant production and climate change
Management-related differences in greenhouse gas emissions and differences in relation to farming system, such as organic versus conventional farming
8.Definitions of farming systems. Roles of legumes in crop-
livestock systems. Integration of pastures in plantation and annual crops intensive feed garden fodder bank. Enhancing dry season feeding in farming systems. Fast growing nitrogen fixing trees and browse plants. Pastures and animal production systems.
APL 805 Environmental Physiology of Farm Animals (2 Units)
Climate and livestock production. Influence of climatic factors on animal productivity. Acclimatization and adaptation. Physiological basis of adaptation, heat stress, physiological responses to heat stress; determination of heat stress index; modification of the microclimate to enhance animal productivity; management of exotic breeds in tropical environment.
Seminar: Four topics per student.
•Factors of the environment that affect animal production processes and a description of the regulator mechanisms within the animals. Methods of monitoring these processes and practical methods of alleviating environmental stress in commercial farm animals.
APL 806 Animal Biotechnology (2 Units)
Animal cell and tissue culture, maturation of oocytes, in vitro oocytes fusion, cloning, species hybridization, inter-species embryo transfer and artificial insemination, DNA sequences, blood group analysis and genetic polymorphism, electrophoretic techniques, genes and genetic markers. Linkage mapping by recombination. Mapping and map distances, chi-square test, mitotic segregation and recombination, analysis of single meiosis, sex chromosomes and sex linkages. Extensive practical sessions on relevant sections to be carried out.
Artificial Insemination: Semen collection using AV, analysis, dilution, and preservation procedures [cryopreservation]. Insemination techniques in farm animals and poultry.
APL 898Internships Reports (2 Units)
APL 899Research Projects Seminars and Dissertations (4 Units)
APL 807 Quantitative Genetics (2 Units)
Genetics and phenotype variations. Genetic basis of qualitative traits, heritability and repeatability, correlation among traits. Selection in long and short term. Cross breeding and selection for crossing ability. Inbreeding depression and heterosis, genetic conservation.
APL 808 Poultry Nutrition and Organic Animal Agriculture (2 Units)
Feed resources and nutrient quality of ingredients for poultry feeding standards/NRC requirement vs requirements in tropics for all classes of and/specie of poultry. Methods for metabolic studies and determination of protein utilization and quality of proteins utilized by poultry. Importance of vitamins and minerals for poultry and associated deficiency symptoms.
•Definitions and general principles of Organic Livestock Nutrition
•Nutritional management standards in organic farm
•General principles of conversion from conventional to organic livestock nutrition
•Prospects and challenges of organic livestock nutrition
•Nutrition: feeding standards and characteristics of feed resources for organic farm animal
•Organic feed formulation and compounding, feed preservation and storage
•Housing: housing standards and materials, adaptation and ecosystem, perimeter fencing and predator control
•Organic livestock nutrition system and health management
•Manure and waste management composting, ensilage
•Management of mitigating environmental greenhouse gases in organic farming systems
Rendering of organic manure production from litters
APL 809 Sheep and Goat Production Enterprises (2 units)
Some considerations in raising sheep and goats. Breeds of sheep and goats. Production records. Determining the age of sheep and goats. Housing and equipment, fences, plans etc. sheep and goat feeding. Functions of vitamins and minerals. Feeding the dry and lactating ewe/doe. Management practices. Managing the kids/lambs, doe/ewe, tethering, dehorning, hoof trimming, castration. Identification practices. Goat/sheep disease: internal parasites, brucellosis, mastitis, foot rot, mange, bloat, poisonous plants etc.
Feeding habits of small ruminants. Conventional and non-conventional feed resources for sheep and goats. Feed conservation and improvement techniques. Nutrient requirements of sheep and goats for various productive purposes. Feed production for small-holder small ruminant feeding in crop-livestock integrations. Recent advances in sheep and goat nutrition.
APL 810Sustainable Integrated Livestock Farming Systems (2 Units)
What is Sustainable Agriculture / Farming system?
Concept and themes of sustainable Agriculture:
Farming and Natural Resources; water, energy, air and soil
Plant Production Practices; selection of site, species and variety, diversity, soil management, Efficient use of inputs, concerns about practitioners’ goals and choices.
Animal Production Practices; Management planning, animal selection, animal nutrition, reproduction livability of animals, pasture? Paddock, confinement of animals.
Economic, social and political considerations; food and agric policy, land use, consumers and food value chain.
Integrated farming/Integrated biosystems
Case studies of integrated farming systems
Students to be part of a model sustainable integrated livestock farming system for at least 2 weeks, then write a report of their observations criticisms and lessons learnt
APL 811 Animal Behaviour and Welfare dynamics in a Changing Climate (2 Units)
Animal welfare is an integral part of livestock production which is often underestimated especially in a developing economy like Africa which is experiencing a continuous changing climate like the rest of the globe. Animal ethics including the rules and regulations guiding the production of animals in Nigeria and Europe should be taught. This course will deal with issues bothering down on impact of changing climate on the behaviour and welfare of different species of animals in their ecological niche.
•Comparing rules and regulations guiding the production and handling of animals in Nigeria (Africa) and Europe
•Sustainability and probable effect on production of animals
Seasonal changes and effect on the welfare of animals viz a viz the:
•Physical response of different species of animals
•Behavioural response of the animals
•Physiological response of different species of animals
•Nutritional adaptation of animals
•Reproductive capacity of different species of animals
Controlling the environment, insulation and ventilation:
•Energy exchange with the environment
Freedom: Behaviour of Animals
•What is normal behaviour?
•Do animals have behavioural needs?
•How can behavioural needs be assessed?
•What is environmental enrichment?
•How can it be supplied?
•Does it always improve an animal’s welfare?
- Lectures 0
- Quizzes 0
- Duration 54 hours
- Skill level Beginner
- Language English
- Students 28
- Certificate No
- Assessments Yes