ESC 805
Hydrological Measurements and Analysis (3 Units)

Hydrometric Networks: Gauging networks; design considerations; precipitation networks; evaporation networks; surface water networks and groundwater networks. Precipitation: Storage gauges; rainfall recorders; siting the rain gauge; international practice and recent developments. Evaporation: Factors affecting evaporation, measurement of evaporation from an open water surface and measurement of evaporation loss from transpiration from vegetation (evapotranspiration) and measurement of potential evaporation. Soil moisture: Soil structure and composition; soil properties; water in soil; soil water retention and methods of measurement. River flow: River gauging; stage-discharge relationship; flumes and weirs; dilution gauging and modern gauging techniques. Groundwater: Infiltration; groundwater flow equations; flow nets; groundwater measurement and groundwater exploration. Precipitation Analysis: Determination of areal rainfall; depth-area analysis; depth-area-duration; rainfall frequency; intensity-duration-frequency analysis and extreme values of precipitation. Evaporation Calculations: Calculation of E ; Calculation of E ; Calculation of PE and Soil moisture deficit. River Flow Analysis: River regimes; peak discharges; flow frequency; flood frequency; flood probabilities; analysis of an annual maximum series; flood prediction; droughts and frequency of low flows. Rainfall-Runoff Relationships: Rational Method; Time-area method; hydrograph analysis. Catchment modeling and Stochastic hydrology

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