Environmental Simulation and modeling (3 Units)
Criteria for the use of data for modeling: Accuracy, Time intervals, Error detection and correction. Classification of models: Terminology, model technique (physical models, analog and mathematical models), model – prototype relationship, limitations, Deterministic and stochastic principles, Lumped and distributed models, Linear and nonlinear models. Stochastic models: Introduction to stochastic processes, Random events, stationarity, Time series analysis, Markovian processes, Filtering. Deterministic models: Deterministic methods in system hydrology, Analytical and numerical solution of equation of motion and continuity, Black box analysis, Conceptual models Mathematical physical models, Flood routing models, Optimization of model parameters, criteria, techniques. Environmental forecasting: Hydrological forecasting, Forecast methods: short-term forecast, on-line systems, updating of parameters; long-term forecast for seasonal runoff, off-line systems. Application to floods, draught, low flow, water temperature.