IN VITRO GAS PRODUCTION AND PERFORMANCE RESPONSE OF KALAWAD GOATS FED GINGER AND GARLIC AS ADDITIVES
NAME: OLANIYI Mariam Bolanle [View Profile]
MATRIC NO: PG/15/0296
CENTRE: World Bank Centre of Excellence in Agricultural Development and Sustainable Environment
PROGRAMME: Livestock Science and Sustainable Environment
DEGREE AWARDED: M.AgSE (Ruminant Production)
Date of defence 18th September 2018
Small ruminants, sheep and goats are increasingly becoming a major source of animal protein in Nigeria contributing over 30 per cent to total meat consumption in the country. The increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, in particular, methane, has been the focus of a study in global warming, as its contribution is 23 times more potent than carbon dioxide. It was estimated that livestock produced 18% of all global greenhouse gas emission, greater than all forms of transportation combined. The ruminant animal is unique because of its four stomach compartments: rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. The function of the rumen as a fermentation vat and the presence of certain bacteria promote the development of gases. However, concentrated feeds with plant extracts have been studied to reduce the in-vitro gas production in ruminants without affecting their growth performance. This study aims to investigate the feeding effect of ginger and garlic powder supplementation on growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and blood profile of Kalahari West African Dwarf (KALAWAD) goats. For this purpose, 20 KalaWAD with the mean average weight of 8.00±2 kg was balanced for weight and assigned to 4 treatment groups, i.e., Control, garlic (1%/100 kg garlic powder supplementation), ginger (1.0%/100 kg ginger powder supplementation), Ginger and garlic (1%/100 kg garlic powder supplementation). Animals were managed in individual pens, concentrate (Treatment diet) fed and basal diet (maize stover) at ratio 30:70 for 90 days after 7 days periods of acclimatisation. Results of this study showed that final weight, concentrate intake, grass intake and total feed intake were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the inclusion of garlic, ginger or garlic + ginger powder of 1%. However, the daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly (p>0.05) with garlic having the highest mean values. DM, CP, CF, EE, Ash, NFE and organic matter digestibility were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by ginger and garlic powder supplementation. Total gas volume and short chain fatty acid were significantly (p<0.05) affected by ginger+garlic powder supplementation. However, the Net gas volume is significantly (p<0.05) affected by garlic supplementation. Also, haematological parameters measured in this study were not significantly (p>0.05) different with ginger and garlic powder supplementation. This present study reveals that garlic powder supplementation up to 1% in concentrate diet did not exert any adverse effect on the performance of KalaWAD goats.